5/5/18

Perfect tools are not easy to find

Daily aspirin linked to double melanoma risk in men, not in women.



Men who take once-daily aspirin have nearly double the risk of melanoma compared to men who are not exposed to daily aspirin, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study.

Women, however, do not have an increased risk in this large patient population.

"Given the widespread use of aspirin and the potential clinical impact of the link to melanoma, patients and health care providers need to be aware of the possibility of increased risk for men," said senior study author Dr. Beatrice Nardone, research assistant professor of dermatology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

She suggested increasing patient education about sun exposure, avoiding tanning beds and getting skin checks by a dermatologist, particularly for individuals who are already at high risk for skin cancers.

"This does not mean men should stop aspirin therapy to lower the risk of heart attack," she stressed.

Almost half of people age 65 and over reported taking aspirin daily or every other day, according to a 2005 study. In 2015, about half of a nationwide survey of U.S. adults reported regular aspirin use.

The study was published April 27 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Nardone was surprised at the results because aspirin is reported to reduce risk of gastric, colon, prostate and breast cancer. And some previous studies have reported a reduced risk in aspirin-exposed men and an increased risk in aspirin-exposed women. Nardone attributed this to variability of the research methods used in studies that look for associations and risks for cancers.

Among the numerous possibilities, one reason men may be more vulnerable could be related to males (human and animal species) expressing a lower amount of protective enzymes, like superoxide dismutase and catalase, compared to females, Nardone speculated.

"These lower levels of protective enzymes suggest that a higher level of resulting oxidative cellular damage in men might contribute to the possibility of developing melanoma," said Nardone, who is an investigator for the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports Program at Northwestern.

The study collected medical record data comprising almost 200,000 patients who were aspirin-exposed or aspirin-unexposed (control group), ages 18-89, with no prior history of melanoma and with a follow-up time of at least five years.

For the aspirin-exposed patient population, the study included only patients who had at least one year of once-daily aspirin exposure at a dose of 81 or 325 mg occurring between January 2005 and December 2006 in order to allow for at least five years of follow-up data to detect if melanoma occurred over time. Out of a total of 195,140 patients, 1,187 were aspirin exposed. Of these 1,187 patients, 26 (2.19 percent) (both men and women) had a subsequent diagnosis for melanoma compared to 1,676 (0.86 percent) in aspirin-unexposed (men and women) patients.

When the groups were separated into men and women, men exposed to aspirin had almost twice the risk for diagnosis of melanoma (adjusted relative risk: 1.83) compared to men in the same population who were not exposed to aspirin.

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Northwestern University. "Daily aspirin linked to double melanoma risk in men: Women taking daily aspirin do not have higher risk in the same population." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 May 2018. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180503142628.htm>.

2/8/18

Apple polyphenols extract

Apple polyphenols extract has a positive effect on vascular oxidative stress and endothelium function. Abstract Author(s): Arrigo F G Cicero, Cristiana Caliceti, Federica Fogacci, Marina Giovannini, Donato Calabria, Alessandro Colletti, Maddalena Veronesi, Aldo Roda, Claudio Borghi Abstract: SCOPE: We aimed examining apple polyphenols' effect on uricemia and endothelial function in a sample of overweight subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a two-phases study. In vitro experiment aimed to evaluate apple polyphenols' ability to lower uric acid in comparison with allopurinol. In vivo study consisted in a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 62 overweight volunteers with suboptimal values of fasting plasma glucose (100mg/dL=FPG=125mg/dL), randomized to 300mg apple polyphenols or placebo for 8 weeks. Apple polyphenols extract inhibited xanthine oxidase activity, with an IC50 = 130±30 ng/mL; reducing uric acid production with an IC50 = 154±28 ng/mL. During the trial, after the first 4 weeks of treatment, FPG decreased in the active treated group (-6,1%,P<0,05), while no significant changes were observed regarding the other hematochemistry parameters. After 4 more weeks of treatment, active-treated patients had an improvement in FPG compared to baseline (-10,3%,P<0,001) and the placebo group (P<0,001). Uric acid (-14,0%,P<0,05 vs baseline; P<0,05 vs placebo) and endothelial reactivity (0,24±0,09,P = 0,009 vs baseline; P<0,05 vs placebo) significantly improved too. CONCLUSION: In vivo, apple polyphenols extract has a positive effect on vascular oxidative stress and endothelium function and reduce FPG and uric acid by inhibiting xanthine oxidase, as our in vitro experiment attests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Article Published Date : Jul 28, 2017 Study Type : Human Study Additional Links Substances : Apple Polyphenols : CK(52) : AC(25) Diseases : Endothelial Dysfunction : CK(1210) : AC(237), Hyperuricemia : CK(227) : AC(49), Overweight : CK(3643) : AC(612) Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132), Hypoglycemic Agents : CK(1446) : AC(342), Uricosuric Agents : CK(2) : AC(1) Abstract Source: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29. PMID: 28755406

8/6/17

Lutein, the super compound

Estructura en 3D de la molécula de luteína, presente en vegetales y frutas. Pigmento amarillo característico.


3/30/17

Daily consumption of tea may protect the elderly from cognitive decline

The importance of this finding leds me to publish it as it comes.

Daily consumption of tea may protect the elderly from cognitive decline, study suggests
Date:
March 16, 2017
Source:
National University of Singapore
Summary:
Tea drinking reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in older persons by 50 per cent and as much as 86 per cent for those who are genetically at risk of Alzheimer's, new research suggests.
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NUS researchers found that regular consumption of tea brewed from tea leaves reduces elderly persons' risk of cognitive decline.
Credit: © Serhiy Shullye / Fotolia
A cup of tea a day can keep dementia away, and this is especially so for those who are genetically predisposed to the debilitating disease, according to a recent study led by Assistant Professor Feng Lei from the Department of Psychological Medicine at National University of Singapore's (NUS) Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine.

The longitudinal study involving 957 Chinese seniors aged 55 years or older has found that regular consumption of tea lowers the risk of cognitive decline in the elderly by 50 per cent, while APOE e4 gene carriers who are genetically at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease may experience a reduction in cognitive impairment risk by as much as 86 per cent.

The research team also discovered that the neuroprotective role of tea consumption on cognitive function is not limited to a particular type of tea -- so long as the tea is brewed from tea leaves, such as green, black or oolong tea.

"While the study was conducted on Chinese elderly, the results could apply to other races as well. Our findings have important implications for dementia prevention. Despite high quality drug trials, effective pharmacological therapy for neurocognitive disorders such as dementia remains elusive and current prevention strategies are far from satisfactory. Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The data from our study suggests that a simple and inexpensive lifestyle measure such as daily tea drinking can reduce a person's risk of developing neurocognitive disorders in late life," explained Asst Prof Feng.

He added, "Based on current knowledge, this long term benefit of tea consumption is due to the bioactive compounds in tea leaves, such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins and L-theanine. These compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential and other bioactive properties that may protect the brain from vascular damage and neurodegeneration. Our understanding of the detailed biological mechanisms is still very limited so we do need more research to find out definitive answers."

In this study, tea consumption information were collected from the participants, who are community-living elderly, from 2003 to 2005. At regular intervals of two years, these seniors were assessed on their cognitive function using standardised tools until 2010. Information on lifestyles, medical conditions, physical and social activities were also collected. Those potential confounding factors were carefully controlled in statistical models to ensure the robustness of the findings.

The research team published their findings in scientific journal The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging in December 2016.

Future Research

Asst Prof Feng and his team are planning to embark on further studies to better understand the impact of Asian diet on cognitive health in aging. They are also keen to investigate the effects of the bioactive compounds in tea and test them more rigorously through the assessment of their biological markers and by conducting randomised controlled trials or studies that assign participants into experimental groups or control groups randomly to eliminate biased results.

Story Source:

Materials provided by National University of Singapore. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

L. Feng, M. -S. Chong, W. -S. Lim, Q. Gao, M. S. Z. Nyunt, T. -S. Lee, S. L. Collinson, T. Tsoi, E. -H. Kua, T. -P. Ng. Tea consumption reduces the incidence of neurocognitive disorders: Findings from the Singapore longitudinal aging study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 2016; 20 (10): 1002 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-016-0687-0
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National University of Singapore. "Daily consumption of tea may protect the elderly from cognitive decline, study suggests." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 March 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170316093412.htm>.

Imagen de Internet. El té verde lo tomo con el mate

10/7/16

A complex mix of plant compounds derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine works to kill cancer cells.

Researchers at the University of Adelaide have shown how a complex mix of plant compounds derived from ancient clinical practice in China -- a Traditional Chinese Medicine -- works to kill cancer cells.
Compound kushen injection (CKI) is approved for use in China to treat various cancer tumours, usually as an adjunct to western chemotherapy -- but how it works has not been known.
This study, published in the journal Oncotarget, is one of the first to characterise the molecular action of a Traditional Chinese Medicine rather than breaking it down to its constituent parts.
"Most Traditional Chinese Medicine are based on hundreds or thousands of years of experience with their use in China," says study leader, Professor David Adelson, Director of the Zhendong Australia -- China Centre for the Molecular Basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
"There is often plenty of evidence that these medicines have a therapeutic benefit, but there isn't the understanding of how or why.
"If we broke down and tested the components of many Traditional Chinese Medicines, we would find that individual compounds don't have much activity on their own. It's the combination of compounds which can be effective, and potentially means few side-effects as well.
"This is one of the first studies to show the molecular mode of action of a complex mixture of plant-based compounds -- in this case extracts from the roots of two medicinal herbs, Kushen and Baituling -- by applying what's known as a systems biology approach. This is a way of analysing complex biological systems that attempts to take into account all measurable aspects of the system rather than focussing on a single variable."
The Zhendong Australia China Centre for Molecular Traditional Chinese Medicine was established at the University of Adelaide in 2012 in a collaboration with the China-based Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Zhendong Pharmaceutical Company.
The Centre was established with a donation by the Zhendong Pharmaceutical Company, with the aim of understanding how Traditional Chinese Medicine works, and the long-term aim of possible integration into western medicine.
The researchers used high-throughput next generation sequencing technologies to identify genes and biological pathways targeted by CKI when applied to breast cancer cells grown in the laboratory.
"We showed that the patterns of gene expression triggered by CKI affect the same pathways as western chemotherapy but by acting on different genes in the same pathways," says Professor Adelson.
"These genes regulate the cell cycle of division and death, and it seems that CKI alters the way the cell cycle is regulated to push cancer cells down the cell death pathway, therefore killing the cells."
Professor Adelson says this technique could be used to analyse the molecular mechanisms of other Traditional Chinese Medicines, potentially opening their way for use in western medicine.

University of Adelaide. "How Chinese medicine kills cancer cells." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 September 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160908084319.htm>.